「我離港前到過一間精神科醫院。當時有位病人禮貌地問,一個以作為世上最悠久民主政體而自傲的國家,如何能夠將此地交給一個政治制度非常不同的國家,且既沒諮詢當地公民,又沒給予他們民主的前景,好讓他們捍衞自己的將來。一個隨行同事說,奇怪,香港提出最理智問題的人,竟在精神科醫院。」彭定康 金融時報

“During a visit to a mental hospital before I left Hong Kong, a patient politely asked me how a country that prided itself on being the oldest democracy in the world had come to be handing over his city to another country with a very different system of government, without either consulting the citizens or giving them the prospect of democracy to safeguard their future. Strange, said one of my aides, that the man with the sanest question in Hong Kong is in a mental hospital.”Chris Patten Financial Times

Non Chinese literate friends, please simply switch to English Version provided by LOUSY Google Translation

Please participate in the unregistered demography survey of visitors at the right hand side bar. You are: ?

敬請參與在右下方的不記名訪客分佈調查問卷,你是: ?

Friday, February 22, 2013

美國卸任總統圖書館文物館

美國卸任總統圖書館文物館



Mount Rushmore National Memorial 總統山 South Dakota Sculptures of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln (left to right) 荷里活電影 National Treasure II 就是用這處造文章
圖片來源:維基百科


嗜悲 自從愛上在北美自駕遊,兩次路過 總統山 都因天氣不佳,未能一睹總統山 真面目。電影:National Treasure Book Of Secrets 也有用 總統山 造文章,說山內暗藏寶藏!




部份電影故事:
【維基百科】Ben, Patrick, Abigail and Riley arrive at Mount Rushmore, prepared to deal with Mitch, but find that Mitch has brought Emily along, using her as a hostage to ensure Ben follows the final clues on an old letter sent from Queen Victoria to Confederate general Albert Pike that was meant to help a divided America.

Ben is able to find the secret entrance, and the group avoids several traps before arriving at the underground site of Cíbola, the City of Gold. Mitch apologizes to Ben for damaging his family name. As they explore, they accidentally cause the cave to flood with water from a lake above.

The only means of escape is through a drainage door that must be held open on one side to allow the rest to escape and closed afterwards, trapping the one controlling the door. Mitch initially forces Ben to sacrifice himself, but after a surge of water, Mitch finds himself holding the door open. He requests that part of this discovery be in his name. Ben and the others escape safely.



不過,嗜悲 除了遊山玩水尋幽訪勝之外,也愛參觀博物館 museums,但美國和加拿大立國都只得二百餘年,最有名的 Smithsonian Museums 需要預約排長龍很費事失事,實在很浪費時間。


在首都渥太華 Ottawa 和 華盛頓 Washington, D.C. 的 Historic sites and Museums 行完行罷後,我的目標就轉移到,卸任美國總統的個人文物館。


每位卸任的美國總統,都會獲批地在家鄉撥地,再成立一個基金會 foundation fund 去籌款,興建一所《總統圖書館文物館》President Library and Museum,收藏任內有紀念價值的物品。

第一個《圖書館文物館》嗜悲 曾經到訪的是:Richard Nixon



Movie:Frost - Nixon 港譯:驚世真言


尼克遜總統任內為了掩飾《水門事件》,引致為避免受到彈劾而辭職,他企圖利用一次電視的訪談翻身,可惜變成棺材釘致死永不超生。尼克遜 出生在 加利福尼亞州 猶伯連達市 Yorba Lind,距離 洛杉磯 downtown 約 36.5英哩,這裡是尼克遜的出生地,也是死後葬身之地。


Yorba Linda Boulevard, Yorba Linda, California.


尼克遜總統圖書館暨文物館 Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum


【維基百科】The Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and final resting place of Richard Milhous Nixon, the 37th President of the United States. Located in Yorba Linda, California, the library is one of twelve administered by the National Archives and Records Administration.

From its original dedication in 1990 until becoming a federal facility on July 11, 2007, the library and museum was operated by the private Richard Nixon Foundation and was known as the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace. The 9-acre (3.6 ha) campus is located at 18001 Yorba Linda Boulevard in Yorba Linda, California and incorporates the National Historic Landmarked Richard Nixon Birthplace where Nixon was born in 1913 and spent his childhood. The facility is now jointly operated between NARA and the Richard Nixon Foundation.

Traditionally, materials and records of a U.S. president were considered to be his personal property upon leaving office. The Watergate scandal and Richard Nixon's subsequent resignation from office complicated the issue, however.

In September 1974, Richard Nixon made an agreement with the head of the General Services Administration, Arthur F. Sampson, to turn over most materials from his presidency, including tape recordings of conversations he had made in the White House; however, the recordings were to be destroyed after September 1, 1979 if directed by Nixon or by September 1, 1984 or his death otherwise.

Alarmed that Nixon's tapes may be lost, Congress abrogated the Nixon-Sampson Agreement by passing S.4016, signed into law by President Gerald Ford in December 1974 as the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act. It applied specifically to materials from the Nixon presidency, directing NARA to take ownership of the materials and process them as quickly as possible. Private materials were to be returned to Nixon.

The original Library & Birthplace was officially dedicated on July 19, 1990. Former President Nixon and First Lady Pat Nixon were present, as were President George H. W. Bush, then the President of the United States, former President Gerald Ford, former President Ronald Reagan, and first ladies Barbara Bush, Betty Ford, and Nancy Reagan. A crowd of 50,000 gathered for the ceremony. At the dedication, Nixon said, "Nothing we have ever seen matches this moment–to be welcomed home again.



令 嗜悲 想看看 尼克遜 的文物館,是因為他是首位在位的美國總統,訪問中國共產黨的北京政權,尼克遜 和 毛澤東 周恩來 握過手,開拓中美的外交接觸,繼而與中國建立正常外交關係,也速成台北退出聯合國。要參觀 尼克遜文物館是要付費的!


而另一位美國總統的文物館,嗜悲 下一個選擇是:趁有一次去紐約市遊覽後,順路北上去 波士頓市,路經 麻省州立大學 university of Massachusetts Boston campus 時,轉了入去順便參觀一吓 約翰甘迺迪 JFK 的圖書館文物館。


怎會走走這一段路呢?因為電影 緣分的天空 中 Annie drove on the road from Baltimore to Boston and she was listening to radio “Sleepless in Seattle."


Morrissey Blvd, Boston, Massachusetts.


甘迺迪總統圖書館暨文物館 John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum


甘迺迪 任內最出名的就是 1962年,歷時 13天的《古巴飛彈事件》,蘇聯派船運送飛彈到古巴,美國出動戰艦攔截及封鎖古巴,險些釀成第三次世界大戰,也可能爆發一場毀滅全球的核災難。


Movie:Thirteen-Days 港譯:驚爆十三天



【維基百科】The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and museum of the 35th President of the United States, John F. Kennedy. It is located on Columbia Point in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts, next to the University of Massachusetts Boston and the Massachusetts Archives. It was designed by the architect I. M. Pei.

The building is the official repository for original papers and correspondence of the Kennedy Administration, as well as special bodies of published and unpublished materials, such as books and papers by and about Ernest Hemingway. The library and museum were dedicated in 1979 by President Jimmy Carter and members of the Kennedy family. It can be reached from nearby Interstate 93 or via shuttle bus from the JFK/UMass stop on the Boston subway's Red line.

After President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, his family and friends discussed how to construct a library that would serve as a fitting memorial.

A committee was formed to advise Kennedy's widow Jacqueline, who would make the final decision. The group deliberated for months, and visited with architects from around the world including Pietro Belluschi and others from the United States, Brazil's Lucio Costa, and Italy's Franco Albini. Mrs. Kennedy and others met with the candidates together at the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis, Massachusetts, and visited several in their offices. The committee also conducted a secretive process whereby the architects voted anonymously for the most capable of their colleagues.

Progress on the building began shortly after his death. On January 13, 1964, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy announced that a taped oral-history project was to be undertaken for inclusion in the library. The project would feature administration staff, friends, family, and politicians from home and abroad. The Attorney General also announced that Eugene R. Black, Sr. agreed to serve as chairman of the board of trustees and that $1 million of Black’s $10 million goal had been given to the trust by the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation.

The death of the President was still fresh in the hearts and minds of the American public and by March of that year $4.3 million had been pledged, including 18,727 unsolicited donations from the public. Large donations came from the Hispanic world with Venezuela pledging $100,000 and Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín offering the same.



古巴危機之後的一年,1963年 甘迺迪總統 就在德薩斯州的達拉斯市,被狙擊手行刺射殺,頭部中彈即時身亡。這所 甘迺迪文物館是由華裔建築師 貝聿銘 I.M.Pei 設計,要參觀 甘迺迪文物館也是要付費的!


兩位已故總統原來曾經在總統大選中各為其黨, head to head 對壘,甘迺迪 vs 尼克遜 選戰激烈。


1960年的美國總統大選,尼克遜 是艾森豪威爾(元帥)總統的副總統,艾帥任滿兩屆後,交棒由副總統 尼克遜 上馬代表共和黨參選。民主黨則派出麻省參議員:年輕英俊瀟灑的 JFK 約翰甘迺迪,不過論經驗和往績都不及 尼克遜。


【維基百科】The key turning point of the campaign were the four Kennedy-Nixon debates; they were the first presidential debates held on television, and thus attracted enormous publicity. Nixon insisted on campaigning until just a few hours before the first debate started; he had not completely recovered from his hospital stay and thus looked pale, sickly, underweight, and tired. He also refused makeup for the first debate, and as a result his beard stubble showed prominently on the era's black-and-white TV screens.

Nixon's poor appearance on television in the first debate is reflected by the fact that his mother called him immediately following the debate to ask if he was sick. Kennedy, by contrast, rested and prepared extensively beforehand, appearing tanned, confident, and relaxed during the debate. An estimated 70 million viewers watched the first debate. It is often claimed that people who watched the debate on television overwhelmingly believed Kennedy had won, while radio listeners (a smaller audience) believed Nixon had won.



On 26 September 1960, 70 million U.S. viewers tuned in to watch Senator John Kennedy of Massachusetts and Vice President Richard Nixon in the first-ever televised presidential debate.


A study has found that the alleged viewer‐listener disagreement is unsupported. After it had ended, polls showed Kennedy moving from a slight deficit into a slight lead over Nixon. For the remaining three debates Nixon regained his lost weight, wore television makeup, and appeared more forceful than his initial appearance.

However, up to 20 million fewer viewers watched the three remaining debates than the first debate. Political observers at the time believed that Kennedy won the first debate, Nixon won the second and third debates, and that the fourth debate,which was seen as the strongest performance by both men, was a draw.



但後者單靠全美國第一次的電視直播總統候選人辯論扭轉了形勢,最後 JFK 以輕微多數 112,827 votes, or 0.17% of the popular vote,Nixon 勝出 26個州 JFK 只勝出 22個州,選舉人票則是 303 to 219 in the Electoral College,選舉人票勝者通殺制度再次生效。


從建築物的外形,也可見的是兩位已故總統的《文物館》,風格是折然不同/ 截然不同的!


後記:
小布殊的圖書館文物館建成,2013年 4月 25日有共五位總統畀面出席開幕禮,包括現任總統 奧巴馬。

Photo Credit George W. Bush Presidential CenterGeorge W. Bush Presidential Center





伸延閱覽:
Mount Rushmore National Memorial 官方網站
National Treasure: Book of Secrets 維基百科
Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum 維基百科
Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum 官方網站
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum 維基百科
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum 官方網站
Richard Nixon vs John F Kenney 1960 election 維基百科



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