My Facebook 新增面書 心空海嶽 by the inner space 歡迎光臨 Welcome in

「我離港前到過一間精神科醫院。當時有位病人禮貌地問,一個以作為世上最悠久民主政體而自傲的國家,如何能夠將此地交給一個政治制度非常不同的國家,且既沒諮詢當地公民,又沒給予他們民主的前景,好讓他們捍衞自己的將來。一個隨行同事說,奇怪,香港提出最理智問題的人,竟在精神科醫院。」彭定康 金融時報

“During a visit to a mental hospital before I left Hong Kong, a patient politely asked me how a country that prided itself on being the oldest democracy in the world had come to be handing over his city to another country with a very different system of government, without either consulting the citizens or giving them the prospect of democracy to safeguard their future. Strange, said one of my aides, that the man with the sanest question in Hong Kong is in a mental hospital.”Chris Patten Financial Times

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Friday, March 18, 2011

日本侵華

日本侵華




自隨唐朝以來,日本人渡海來華求學,但到了明末,倭寇之亂騷擾中國沿海,到了中國清朝末,日本人經歷過明治維新,國力遠遠超過清末民初的中國。


晚清的中日甲午戰爭後,馬關條約清朝割讓台灣澎湖列島給予日本人。八國聯軍後的辛丑條約,清朝容許日本在京津一帶屯駐重兵。日俄戰爭後,日本把俄國勢力趕出旅順,取而代之。第一次世界大戰後,日本向未睱兼顧的德國宣戰,一舉取得德國在山東的利益範圍。


洪憲帝制,袁世凱為了做皇帝,屈辱地簽訂二十一條款,讓日本人得寸進尺,取代德國在山東的特權。一九三一年,日本人發動九一八瀋陽事變,侵略中國東三省,強佔後又成立偽滿清政權。一九三七年七七盧溝橋事變,入侵北平,繼而發動全面侵華,中國展開艱苦的八年抗戰,千萬同胞死在日本人鐵蹄之下,還有慘絕人寰的南京大屠殺。


【維基百科】日本由6852個島嶼組成,面積約37.8万平方公里。國土面積約70%為山地,因此森林覆蓋率高,但卻不適合農耕,耕地面積僅佔日本國土的11.1%。也因此日本的人口多集中在沿海地區,日本的人口密度在世界排名第30位。日本國土狹長,南北總長3800公里。

日本列島按照地質構造可分為西南日本與東北日本兩大區域。其界線為本州中部的糸魚川靜岡構造線。日本列島附近是歐亞板塊、菲律賓海板塊、太平洋板塊和北美洲板塊的交界地,同時日本列島還處在環太平洋造山帶、火山帶、地震帶之上,故日本為多地震、火山與溫泉的國家。

日本最高的山峰─海拔3,776米的富士山本身就是一座活火山。據統計,世界全部黎克特制規模6級以上的地震央,超過二成都發生在日本;而日本一國發生的地震,釋放的地震能量就佔到全球地震釋放能量的10%。



日本地少人多,山地比平原多達到89%,可耕作的土地更是稀少僅得11%,加上在太平洋火山活躍帶,地震頻繁,日本人時刻窺視中國,狼子野心,積極侵華,歷代不滅。


今次二零一一年三月十一日下午的8.9級大地震,令到日本本州東北陸奧地區,以至北海道,蒙受到嚴重經濟損失,基建受到極巨大破壞,核電廠洩漏輻射,人命傷亡尚在統計之中。


經此一大浩劫,日本人的極端軍國主義,極端優生民族主義,勢必借勢借機抬頭,煽動廣大原本善良民眾,積極策劃侵華!


補記:蔡子強專欄「沉沒」與「崛起」
【明報專訊】2006年下旬,當中國人正因中央電視台播出的電視連續紀錄片集《大國崛起》而躊躇滿志,高談闊論,沉醉於「崛起」二字的時候,同一時間,在東邊的日本,國民卻因一套充滿憂患意識的電影《日本沉沒》而憂心忡忡,議論紛紛,警惕於「沉沒」二字。

「沉沒」一詞,相對於「崛起」於西鄰,成了社會上使用率最高的詞彙,凝聚了民情。於同一年,由IMF公布的人均GDP,中國是1709美元,排第110位,而與此成為強烈對比的是,日本是35,757美元,排第14位。

我們拍《大國崛起》他們拍《日本沉沒》
《日本沉沒》原是作家小松左京所著的一部災難小說,該小說曾兩次拍成電影。第一次是1973年,第二次則是2006年。劇情圍繞因地殼板塊移動,而導致日本遭受天災侵襲。科學家警告,日本將沉沒於太平洋的滾滾怒濤之中,日本政府於是急忙展開絕密調查,以及苦思對策,不料地震、海嘯、火山爆發等浩劫卻來得比預期快,日本旋即陷入天崩地裂、岩漿噴湧、巨浪滔天等的末日景象當中,頓成人間煉獄,國民無語問蒼天。

天地不仁,以萬物為芻狗。原本大家以為只會在《日本沉沒》這類災難片中看到的末世景象,過去幾天,卻不幸不斷在電視新聞的畫面中反覆呈現。

處變不驚、井然有序的國民素質
但苦難中,卻仍然見到日本國民素質光輝的一面。過去幾天,在新聞報道中,反覆見到日本市面以至災場秩序井然的報道。沒有搶掠,沒有趁火打劫,沒有呼天搶地,沒有叫官員下台,只有國民默默守望相助,守秩序排隊,或等候打電話,或等候乘車,或等候分發物質,沒有爭先恐後,日本國民的自尊自重,令人為之動容。日本國民如何守望相助,通曉日本事物的幾位作者如張彧暋、健吾、吳偉明等,過去幾天在《明報》論壇版發表的文章已為此作了詳細的描述,筆者在這裏不贅。

隨著核輻射進一步泄漏,情進一步惡化,我不知道市面井然的秩序會否有;又或者,日本政府的危機處理,有很多未如人意的地方,但無論如何,過去一星期日本國民的表現,已足夠讓人動容。我相信這種處變不驚的日本國民素質,與該國一向的憂患意識是分不開的。

當憂患成為一種思維方式
當我翻閱胡平所撰寫《情報日本》一書,當中〈憂患,一種思維方式〉一節,看到以下資料:

日本處於西太平洋火山地震帶,全國有180餘座火山,80%為活火山,全球一年發生大小不等的地震當中,有接近一成發生在日本,約4500至4600次。如果除以一年365日,答案是每天日本都有超過10次地震。近代史上的關東大地震,有十幾萬人喪生,1995年的大阪神戶大地震則有5000多人。除了地震之外,自15世紀以來,有記載的大海嘯達到二十幾次。1489年東海道的大海嘯,大浪高至15至20米,1896年的三陸大海嘯,死於海嘯者超過2.7萬人。

日本就是如此一個自然災害頻繁的國家,除此之外,還有二次大戰美軍投下那兩顆原子彈的烙印,都讓日本人總是覺得,恐怖和災劫往往會從天而降。正如胡平所言:「憂患這一主題,幾乎本能地融進了日本國民的文化血脈」。

電影、漫畫以災難為主題
前述電影《日本沉沒》在1973年及2006年先後兩次上映,都拿到票房冠軍,成了全國熱話。現今已經升格為「省」、2006年時的防衛廳,更建議自衛隊的官兵去看這套電影。這不是個別的例子,類似的作品很多,從電影到漫畫都有,自己看過的,還有川口開治的漫畫《太陽啟示錄》。就連宮崎駿《崖上的波兒》那樣的童話,背景也正是海嘯,我想這都是這種「居安思危」心態的一大寫照。

在健吾的文章中亦提到,當一位女職員入職時,公司為她提供了一個布袋,說那布袋一定要放在其辦公桌下,內裏有安全帽、樽裝食水、乾糧。還有她名字的名牌,出生年月日以至血型。這天,她就緊抱這個「地震救援包」了。她說:「一個長期準備自己會死的民族,應如何應對?」

「生於憂患,死於安樂」,「居安思危」,這些本來是中國人的傳統智慧,但恐怕在日本人身上,才見到真正的體現。但當然,我們也不能一面倒的予以美化,同樣的憂患意識,亦曾為日本帶來焦慮,成了對外擴張和侵略的野獸動力泉源

一個文明大國的真正崛起,在於危難中它向世人展示的處變不驚、井然有序、雍容大度,而不在於它的財雄勢大,又或者常常把「大國崛起」掛在嘴唇邊。


作者是中文大學政治與行政學系高級導師



與日本舉國秩序井然地應付地震海嘯 aftermath 比較,中國人和香港的中國人,竟然誤信奸商謠言,蜂擁搶購食鹽,我等炎黃子孫,又何能夠阻止日本人,再次發動侵華呢?


需知道美國人,今次是日本人的盟友,值得三思!



伸延閱覽:
日本地理 維基百科
「沉沒」與「崛起」~ 蔡子強 雅虎新聞網
中日交往的千年情仇 21cn.com
日核泄漏 背后秘密 嘿嘿解密


Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Meltdown 核芯融化

Meltdown 核芯融化



電影 Movie:The China Syndrome
直譯:中國並發症
港譯:危機

Directed by: James Bridges

Starring:Jane FondaJack LemmonMichael Douglas


本篇已翻譯成繁體中文:谷歌翻譯 / 微軟翻譯


【維基百科】While visiting the Ventana nuclear power plant, television news reporter Kimberly Wells (Jane Fonda) witnesses the plant going through an emergency shutdown (SCRAM).

Shift Supervisor Jack Godell (Jack Lemmon) notices an unusual vibration; then he finds that a gauge is misreading and that the coolant is dangerously low. The crew manages to bring the reactor under control.



Wells's maverick cameraman Richard Adams (Michael Douglas) surreptitiously films the incident, despite being requested to turn his camera off for security purposes. When he shows the film to experts, they realize that the plant came close to the "China Syndrome" in which the core would have melted down into the earth, hitting groundwater and contaminating the surrounding area with radioactive steam.

Godell uncovers evidence that X-rays of welds have been falsified. He believes that the plant is unsafe and could be severely damaged if another full-power SCRAM occurs. He tries to bring the evidence to the attention of the public, but when he is chased, he takes refuge in the power plant.



To his dismay, he finds that the reactor has been brought up to full power. He grabs a gun from a security guard, forces everyone out, and demands to be interviewed on live television.

Plant technicians deliberately cause a SCRAM so that a SWAT team can force its way into the control room. The television cable is cut and Godell is shot by the police, but before he dies he feels the unusual vibration again. The resulting SCRAM is only brought under control by the plant's automatic systems. True to his predictions, the plant suffers significant damage.

Plant officials try to paint Godell as emotionally disturbed, but Godell's friend and coworker Ted Spindler states that Godell would not have taken such drastic steps had there not been something to his belief. The film ends as the reporter's live signal abruptly cuts to color bars.



理論 Theory:China Syndrome
【維基百科】The China Syndrome is a hypothetical idea of an extreme result of a nuclear meltdown in which molten reactor core products breach the barriers below them and flow downwards through the floor of the containment building. The origin of the phrase is the fictional idea that molten material from an American reactor could melt through the crust of the Earth and reach China.

The large size of nuclear power plants ordered during the late 1960s raised new safety questions and created fears of a severe reactor accident that would send large quantities of radiation into the environment.

In the early 1970s a contentious controversy over the performance of emergency core cooling systems in nuclear power plants, designed to prevent a core meltdown that could lead to the China Syndrome, was discussed in the popular media and in technical journals.

In 1971, nuclear physicist Ralph Lapp used the term "China syndrome" to describe the burn-through of the reactor vessel, the penetration of the concrete below it, and the emergence of a mass of hot fuel into the soil below the reactor.

He based his statements on the report of a task force of nuclear physicists headed by Dr. W.K. Ergen, published in 1967. The dangers of such a hypothetical accident were popularized by the 1979 film, The China Syndrome.

The name refers to the idea of the nuclear material burning a hole from the United States to 'the other side of the world', i.e., China. China is a metaphor, as the opposite side of the globe from a majority of the continental USA, save for Northern Montana, Central Colorado, Hawaii, and Northern Alaska is the Indian Ocean.

The 'China Syndrome' refers to the most drastically severe meltdown a nuclear reactor could possibly achieve. In this case, the reactor would reach the highest level of supercriticality for a sustained period of time, resulting in the melting of its support infrastructure.

The uranium in the core would behave in a similar manner to a delta-class fire, self-sustaining temperatures in excess of 2000°C. Since these temperatures would melt all materials around it, the reactor would sink due to gravity, effectively boring a hole through the reactor compartment's floor.

The China syndrome becomes fictional in the hypothesis of it boring a hole from the United States to China, or any other part of the world. Most obviously it is impossible because the Earth's gravity would only pull it towards the core of the planet and no further.

Furthermore, were the molten reactor fuel to reach the planetary mantle, the actual environmental effect would likely be low; the radioactive material would disperse by convection throughout the mantle, which is in any case kept liquid by natural nuclear decay.

However, it is likely that the uranium core would not exceed more than 10 meters of 'boring' due to natural passive safety. The surrounding ground beneath the reactor would absorb the heat and transfer its conductivity to the surrounding area, thus preventing the ground directly beneath the core from 'melting'.

This manner of spreading heat convectively through the ground is proposed for use in General Atomics' Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor for regular operation and passive safety, which aims to eliminate the possibility of a meltdown.





伸延閱覽:
閱讀 本篇網誌(繁體中文) 谷歌翻譯
閱讀 本篇網誌(繁體中文) 微軟翻譯
The China Syndrome 電影 維基百科
China Syndrome 理論 維基百科
電影:危機 The China Syndrome 維基百科
The China Syndrome《中國症候群》危機 NOWNEWS.COM
The China Syndrome Movie Trailer YOUTUBE.com
The Nuclear Meltdown in Japan 谷歌新聞搜尋
核芯融化 谷歌新聞搜尋



Sunday, March 13, 2011

來郵

來郵



週六黃昏收到了日本老友記的來郵,報報平安! 放心下來!


老友記一家大細,住在東京武藏野的住宅區,但要到東京山手線圈內上班,故此每天來回需要四小時多,真是慘情,少了很多時間陪伴嬌妻,逗玩三歲多的女兒 plus 剛剛出生未及週歲的小兒子。


來郵並提及他在鄉間的父母和祖父母,好在雖然都是住在面對太平洋的靜岡縣,地緣關係,沒有受到如東北地區的巨大海嘯波及,平安無事。


今次受到十米高海嘯襲擊的東北部沿岸,主要受災的地區仙台市市和海邊的松島海岸,是我去過多次旅遊的地區。由JR東北新幹線仙台站下車,祗需要經地下通道,就可以轉乘JR仙石線,便可到達松島海岸。


松島海岸是著名的日本三景之一,其他二景是“天之橋立”和“嚴島”(又名宮島)。


松島海岸的地貌,和加拿大的千島相似,一個個小島在近海的淺水海床凸出,加上有松樹生長於奇岩之上,組成美景。松島的美景可分為春夏秋冬四季各有不同,韻味各異,尤其是農曆每月十五日前後,明月夜的松島是難得美景,但個人覺得彎彎一鈎新月之下,松島更是迷人。


遊人可乘觀光遊覽船出遊內海的松島,願意冒險的,可多付費用出奧松島之嵯峨溪,乘船出到外海,就是太平洋,風高浪急,拋上拋落,十分刺激,但一回到內海,又恢復風平浪靜。


讀報得知日本自衛隊的松島基地,受到海嘯襲擊,全基地被海水淹沒,破壞極大,相信松島海岸的美景,也不能倖免矣!

後記:
【明報專訊】在日本海嘯中被沖上民宅屋頂的遊覽船「濱百合」,由於重二百噸難以吊回海上,市政府決定將其解體。

日本三陸海岸岩手縣釜石市的著名遊覽船「濱百合」在東日本大地震引發的海嘯中被沖上一幢兩層民宅的屋頂。雖然只是艙窗破損,但由於船體重達200噸,吊車很難將其吊回海上,市政府經討論後決定將其解體。



據市政府稱,當初耗資4億日圓 購入「濱百合」,已載客十餘年。地震發生當天,「濱百合」正在岩手縣大槌町的造船廠接受定期檢查。海嘯襲來後遊覽船被衝至150米遠的民宅屋頂。

市政府將在遊覽船周圍搭建腳手架,用燒焊槍切割船體鋼板。由於遊覽船已影響到了周圍廢墟的清理工作,市政府告知民宅的主人將盡快將其解體並運走。

雖然遊覽船業務長期陷入赤字,但釜石市的產業振興部長下澤治表示作為一座海濱小鎮,希望在日後財力允許的情況下重新建造「濱百合」。






伸延閱覽:
日本三景 官方網頁
松島海岸觀光船「濱百合」沖上屋頂將被解體 雅虎新聞網
嵯峨溪 日本旅遊指引
松島海岸觀光船 官方網頁