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「我離港前到過一間精神科醫院。當時有位病人禮貌地問,一個以作為世上最悠久民主政體而自傲的國家,如何能夠將此地交給一個政治制度非常不同的國家,且既沒諮詢當地公民,又沒給予他們民主的前景,好讓他們捍衞自己的將來。一個隨行同事說,奇怪,香港提出最理智問題的人,竟在精神科醫院。」彭定康 金融時報

“During a visit to a mental hospital before I left Hong Kong, a patient politely asked me how a country that prided itself on being the oldest democracy in the world had come to be handing over his city to another country with a very different system of government, without either consulting the citizens or giving them the prospect of democracy to safeguard their future. Strange, said one of my aides, that the man with the sanest question in Hong Kong is in a mental hospital.”Chris Patten Financial Times

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Sunday, October 18, 2009

鴉片戰爭



據說:中英鴉片戰爭的遠因,是英國人愛喝中國茶,需要大量白銀找茶葉數,令到英國的白銀流失,換句近代的經濟學術語,就是:英國對中國貿易『入超~貿易逆差!』


狡猾的英國人,就利用中國人愛吸鴉片,大量由印度將鴉片輸入中國,由於鴉片是毒品,會令吸食者上癮,愈吸愈多,這就做成中國人,反而要用大量白銀找數,套用近代經濟學術語:是扭轉英國的貿易逆差,平衡了中英的貿易。


但是狡猾的英國人,成功偷了中國種植茶葉的方法,在當時稱為《錫蘭》,即現今南印度外海島嶼國家《斯里蘭卡》,試種中國茶葉,並得到成功,依靠中國輸入茶葉,就沒以前那麼緊張。這樣一來一回,變成中國要需要大量白銀找鴉片數,做成中國的大量白銀流失,達到十分嚴重程度,套用近代經濟學術語:英國對中國貿易『巨額出超~巨額貿易順差』,是英國不但扭轉了貿易逆差,反而得到巨大貿易順差。 而對中國而言,大量中國白銀,流入英國人口袋裡,換句近代的經濟學術語,就是:中國對英國貿易『嚴重入超~巨額貿易逆差!』


因為中國人的鴉片癮,愈來愈深,英國的貿易順差,愈來愈大,英國人更加推廣宣傳,即是賣廣告,荼毒更多中國子民。而且鴉片損害中國人體質,令到集體健康出現問題,變成東亞病夫。中英發生矛盾,遂借故發生了兩次『鴉片戰爭!』


【維基百科】 鴉片戰爭可以指:
第一次鴉片戰爭,1839年—1842年。由於鴉片的危害日趨嚴重,使得朝野上下,禁鴉片的呼聲日趨高漲。1838年底,清朝道光帝頒布禁煙令,並派欽差大臣湖廣總督林則徐前往廣州負責執行,這就是歷史上有名的虎門銷煙。1839年3月,林則徐抵達廣州後,勒令外國煙販交出所有鴉片,並承諾不要再販賣,保證「嗣後來船永不敢夾帶鴉片,如有帶來,一經查出,貨盡沒官,人即正法,情甘服罪」,並於6月3日-6月25日將大部分法律上屬於英國人的鴉片庫存全部銷毀。英國人把中國人的禁煙行動看成侵犯私人財產,覺得不可容忍,促成戰爭的爆發。


第二次鴉片戰爭,1856年—1860年。1856年5月,美、英、法三使,先後對葉名琛發出修約照會,不得要領。1856年10月8日發生亞羅號事件,葉名琛對英態度強硬,毫無誠意,不賠償、不道歉,只答應放人,此舉令英國方面極為不滿,英國與法國聯手進攻清朝的戰爭,又名「亞羅號戰爭」、「英法聯軍之役」(可拆分為「第一次英法聯軍之役」與「第二次英法聯軍之役」)或「第二次中英戰爭」。因為這場戰爭可以看作是第一次鴉片戰爭的延續,所以稱「第二次鴉片戰爭」。也有人將此分為兩段:1856年~1858年稱「第一次英法聯軍之役」,1859年~1860年稱「第二次英法聯軍之役」1859年6月,英法發艦帶同新任駐華公使,前往北京換約及建立使館。按西方慣例,咸豐帝得接見代表本國的公使見面。而咸豐不欲與外國使臣見面,於是命僧格林沁暗中誘擊兩國部隊,雙方在大沽發生炮戰,英法軍受創而去。1860年7月英法援軍大舉來襲,大沽、天津相繼陷落。


第一次鴉片戰爭和第二次鴉片戰爭的後果是,中國的清政府,割讓了香港島和九龍南部的土地給予英國人。至于新界則是1897年,中國山東發生德國傳教士被殺事件,德國乘機佔據山東的青島,俄國亦進駐旅順和大連。英國則佔領山東的威海以平衡列強勢力。同時法國亦借機進駐廣東的廣州灣(今湛江)。為了平衡法國在南中國的勢力,英國政府以香港的防衛需要加強為由,再逼使清朝政府簽訂《展拓香港界址專條》,從1898年7月1日起租借九龍半島界限街以北、深圳河以南的地方及附近二百多個離島,為期99年。值得留意的是,在清朝政府力爭之下,九龍寨城的管治權並沒有交給英國。



清朝的喪權辱國,1842年簽訂《南京條約》割香港,1860年簽下《北京條約》割九龍,1897年簽訂《展拓香港界址專條》租出新界,卻換來香港九龍及新界,百年的另類統治,成為東方的一顆明珠。


昨天看到這一篇簡短的新聞報導,英國人又來中國販毒,被捉著了,依法判了死刑:中國表示對英毒販判死合法

【明報專訊】外交部發言人馬朝旭表示,中方對涉嫌販毒的英國籍男子審判符合中國法律規定。

馬朝旭說,據了解,英國人阿克毛因涉嫌販毒,去年10月29日被烏魯木齊市中級人民法院一審判處死刑,目前此案正在由最高人民法院覆核。

馬朝旭表示,有關案件審理程序符合中國的法律規定。審理期間,被告人和辯護人都自由行使了辯護權,並為被告聘請了翻譯,依法充分保障了他的訴訟權利。

馬朝旭說,據他所知,英國駐華使館和英國一個組織,通過被告人委託的律師,提出對阿克毛進行精神病鑒定,但是沒有提出被告人可能患有精神病的依據。被告人也表示,本人及其家屬沒有任何精神疾病歷史。有關情況正在審理當中。



狡猾的英國人,試圖以”精神病“做理由擴辯,實在可恥。現在的中國,不再是一百年前的衰落清政府,對犯罪的英國人,來華犯罪,來中國販毒,理所當然依法查辦,絕不能手軟,要殺一儆百,樹立我中華泱泱大國風范,證明中國有法治精神,絕不應赦免任何販毒犯罪份子,別讓存在雙重標準的國外反華份子,反口來說:中國有法不依。


後記:
【明報專訊】英國首相白高敦會見正在訪英的中國國務委員戴秉國時,向中國施壓,要求免除一名英國公民的死刑。

白高敦在倫敦唐寧街十號首相府,會見戴秉國。除了他外,英國外相文禮彬與戴會晤時,亦提出了相同的要求。

53歲的英國公民沙伊克(Akmal Shaikh)2007年在新疆烏魯木齊被逮捕。當時他被查出攜帶有四公斤海洛因。他在翌年被中國法院一審宣布毒品走私罪成立,判處死刑。

沙伊克的家人和支持者說,他患有妄想症或精神紊亂症,是被犯罪組織哄騙攜帶毒品的。英國外交部說,中方多次拒絕他們要求將被告精神疾病的因素考慮進去。

英國外交部的聲明說,中國法庭在沒有適當考慮沙伊克精神狀態的情況下,維持對其死刑判決,首相白高敦對此感到震驚和不安。

沙伊克曾提出上訴,但上周中國法院宣布維持原判。目前,案件正在中國最高法院進行審理。



四公斤的海洛因,可以毒害幾多中國人呢?我不知道!但肯定肯定不是自用,而且英國人企圖用精神病來洗脫罪名,實在可恥!政客向中國施壓更涉及優越主意作崇,SHAME!Gordon Brown Shame!



伸延閱覽:
中國表示對英毒販判死合法 雅虎新聞
第一次鴉片戰爭 維基百科
第二次鴉片戰爭 維基百科
英國強行租借新界 維基百科
南京條約 維基百科
北京條約 維基百科
展拓香港界址專條 維基百科
首名英國人面臨中國槍斃 香港高登討論區
中國表示對英毒販判死合法 Yahoo 新聞
白高敦促華推翻處死英公民- Yahoo 新聞
Brown presses China over death penalty Yahoo News
Gordon Brown pressing China 谷歌新聞搜尋
英媒不满英毒贩在华被判死刑呼吁对华外交施压 铁血社区 (簡體版)
British drug trafficker subject to Chinese laws people.com.cn
Brown asks China to spare drug smuggler smh.com.au
British Drug Smuggler's Death Sentence chinasmack.com






14 comments:

新鮮人 said...

國內有法不依的例子太多了,
不過未必是在這案子中!

死刑是一個爭議性的話題!

ps:
深夜到訪,
只因睡醒了,
没有特別原因!

收買佬 said...

打倒英國

微豆 Haricot said...

Linking the opium wars to a drug-trafficking case today does not make any sense. Some people might wish to stir up the anti-foreigner sentiment because the accused happens to be a Brit. They are saying: The scum's forefathers were guilty of importing opium into China. So he deserves nothing short of the firing squd. But what if this individual were from another country or of a different nationality, would it have made him less guilty? I would say no because to say otherwise would have tainted the case with racial discrimination. The key issue here is whether the death penalty is an "appropriate" punishment for this kind of crime.

Anonymous said...

First we have to agree that there is no REAL rule of law in China. That will make the discussion easier.

I am curious what the past sentencing record was like for similar drug trafficking crime.

I wouldn't directly link the Opium War to this case but knowing the history and the
defendant's nationality, I would not totally rule out Space's theory either. May be China is sending a message to foreigners. Will China sentence a Hong Kong man to death if the defendant were from HK?
I wonder. Interesting conversation, thanks.

exile

the inner space said...

新鮮兄:所以就應趁今次確立一個好開始,把英國毒販依法處理,既然國法寫明販毒是死刑,就應拉去打靶正法。

販毒是向人下毒,是慢性謀殺,又且是束意的,長期地下毒,不可能說是誤殺,判死刑好合理!

百多年前,林則徐已經寫明:「如有帶來,一經查出,貨盡沒官,人即正法,情甘服罪。」今天中國法例也是一樣,也不不需要改變。

Gordon Brown 應讀過百多年前英國人賣鴉片給中國人歷史,他還好意思,在今天向中國要求 spare the drug trafficker's crime and his death penalty? certainly hurting the feelings of all Chinese people 傷害每一個中國人。

兄臺的觀點可能不同,但我認為若香港也有販毒判死法例,學生吸毒第一次打十藤,再犯打二十藤,第三次再犯,不論年齡判監五年,相信如今提出的“四不像”校園驗毒,根本不用傷腦筋。

the inner space said...

收收兄:對!要迅速把英國毒販正法,無謂夜長夢多!

the inner space said...

微豆兄:On the contrary I believe we shouldn't forget about HISTORY. The British repeatedly importing drugs opium etc etc into China, since over 100 years ago and most recently. Nothing and nobody can deny this fact.

Even other country national(s) who smuggling narcotics into China, they deserve the same DEATH penalty. There is no racial discrimination and we should not complicate the judgement of the chinese court with racism. This is/was the trick played by the british to shift the attention of other people.

Furthermore, I found that the canadian law people are very strange group of people. There was a male chinese visa student 李昂 killed his girlfriend 趙巍 who was a female chinese visa student in burnaby canada. The Canadian police released the suspect and allowed him to escape back to China. Now HE 李昂 and his assistant 張翰 both arrested in china and would be brought to Chinese court for trail of homicide~murder. The canadian court asks the chinese court to make guarantee that there will be no death penalty. I find that is an interference of chinese judiciary system. Can the chinese court/govt. tell the canadian court how to sentence a criminal case e.g. first degree murder?????

As to the point of "appropriateness”,I have mentioned above when replying Fresh Designer. Providing drugs is a slow but sure murder case, it is an intentional killing and is equivalent to first degree murder in Canada. So once proved guilty, he/she should be sentenced to the most servere punishment in the judicial system which is DEATH penalty in China.

the inner space said...

Exile, Thank you for your objective comment.

Yes, you can be assured that there is black and white LAW saying drug trafficking in china is death penalty. Query cleared.

It is time for china to tell the world that the courts in china follow what the LAW says.

Yes a HK permanent resident 張子強 was SHOT to death for his crime committed in mainland China. That was not an isolated case.

Anonymous said...

It's hard to define "appropriateness". It is very objective. That's why there should be a legal and impartial judiciary system which China is "trying" to establish.

I feel that if 國法寫明販毒是死刑, then China has every right to sentence this guy to death. However the British government also has every right to appeal on behalf of the dependent. Beg for China's mercy? Remember the recent case in North Korea, Pre. Bill Clinton went to N. Korea to ask for (beg for) the release of the two reporters. Same.

I hope the U.S government will do the same for me if I were ever in trouble overseas but it doesn't mean I didn't commit the crime.

In the U.S, some states have death penalty and some don't. It's one of the biggest moral issues during election time. In China, I suppose same laws apply to the whole country, right?

exile

the inner space said...

Exile,Pyongyang case was designed by KIM so he could meet with former pres. clinton to promote his status within the govt.

Now a british subject had committed a crime in china which was against the LAW, he was sentenced to death according to LAW. Seeking pardon is surely damaging the feelings of ALL chinese people and set poor example and bad precedent in Chinese court.

I will question why a british‘s life is more valuable than the life of an ordinary chinese or a HK chinese? Chinese is never an endangered specie?they are expendable?

IF it was done most people would say Gordon Brown had a secret deal with Chinese Leaders. Just like the release of the Libyan prisoner Abdelbaset Ali al-Megrahi. Which I don't want to see.

China must show the world they follow LAW! Not the Wishes of the British government.

Anonymous said...

Space, I appreciate your point of view on the Pyongyang case. It's a sensitive issue over here, I would rather leave it at that.

I hear you (!!!) and totally understand where you're coming from. Your points are well-taken.

Ironically, China has a bad record of using prisoners and dissidents as political pawns. What can we say?
Let's all hope China is really making serious effort to improve its court system, not just playing some political game this time.




exile

the inner space said...

Exile, thank you for reading the grumpy words of a grumpy man from a grumpy place!

微豆 Haricot said...

Space 兄:

Just to make sure there is no misunderstanding. I did agree with you that racial discrimination should NOT play a part in this case. As I indicated previously: Even if the individual were from another country or of a different nationality, it still would NOT have made him less guilty (it's my understanding he was found guilty).

Please let me know what the sentencing outcome is.

the inner space said...

微豆兄:你囑咐的 Update outcome,sorry belated response.


谷歌新聞搜尋:12月29日中國依法處決英國毒販