「我離港前到過一間精神科醫院。當時有位病人禮貌地問,一個以作為世上最悠久民主政體而自傲的國家,如何能夠將此地交給一個政治制度非常不同的國家,且既沒諮詢當地公民,又沒給予他們民主的前景,好讓他們捍衞自己的將來。一個隨行同事說,奇怪,香港提出最理智問題的人,竟在精神科醫院。」彭定康 金融時報

“During a visit to a mental hospital before I left Hong Kong, a patient politely asked me how a country that prided itself on being the oldest democracy in the world had come to be handing over his city to another country with a very different system of government, without either consulting the citizens or giving them the prospect of democracy to safeguard their future. Strange, said one of my aides, that the man with the sanest question in Hong Kong is in a mental hospital.”Chris Patten Financial Times

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Tuesday, May 03, 2011

美萊村

美萊村




【維基百科】The My Lai Massacre (Vietnamese: thảm sát Mỹ Lai) was the mass murder of 347–504 unarmed citizens in South Vietnam on March 16, 1968, conducted by a unit of the United States Army. All of the victims were civilians and most were women, children (including babies), and elderly people. Many of the victims were raped, beaten, tortured, and some of the bodies were found mutilated.

The massacre took place in the hamlets of Mỹ Lai and My Khe of Sơn Mỹ village during the Vietnam War. While 26 US soldiers were initially charged with criminal offenses for their actions at My Lai, only William Calley was convicted of killing 22 villagers. Originally given a life sentence, he served three and a half years under house arrest.

When the incident became public knowledge in 1969, it prompted widespread outrage around the world. The massacre also increased domestic opposition to the US involvement in the Vietnam War.

Three US servicemen who made an effort to halt the massacre and protect the wounded were later denounced by US Congressmen. They received hate mail, death threats and found mutilated animals on their doorsteps. It would take 30 years before they were honored for their efforts.

Initial investigations of the My Lai operation were undertaken by the 11th Light Infantry Brigade's commanding officer, Colonel Henderson, under orders from the Americal Division's executive officer, Brigadier General George H. Young.

Henderson interviewed several soldiers involved in the incident, then issued a written report in late April claiming that some 20 civilians were inadvertently killed during the operation. The army at this time was still describing the events at My Lai as a military victory that had resulted in the deaths of 128 enemy combatants.

Six months later, Tom Glen, a 21-year-old soldier of the 11th Light Infantry Brigade, wrote a letter to General Creighton Abrams, the new overall commander of US forces in Vietnam, accusing the American Division (and other entire units of the US military) of routine and pervasive brutality against Vietnamese civilians. The letter was detailed and its contents echoed complaints received from other soldiers.

Colin Powell, then a 31-year-old Army Major, was charged with investigating the letter, which did not specifically reference My Lai (Glen had limited knowledge of the events there).

In his report, Powell wrote, "In direct refutation of this portrayal is the fact that relations between Americalsoldiers and the Vietnamese people are excellent." Powell's handling of the assignment was later characterized by some observers as "whitewashing" the atrocities of My Lai.

In May 2004, Powell, then United States Secretary of State, told CNN's Larry King, "I mean, I was in a unit that was responsible for My Lai. I got there after My Lai happened. So, in war, these sorts of horrible things happen every now and again, but they are still to be deplored."

Independently of Glen a former member of Charlie Company, Ronald Ridenhour, sent a letter in March 1969 detailing the events at My Lai to President Richard M. Nixon, the Pentagon, the State Department, the Joint Chiefs of Staff and numerous members of Congress.

Most recipients of Ridenhour's letter ignored it, with the exception of Congressman Morris Udall(D-Arizona) and Senators Barry Goldwater (R-Arizona) and Edward Brooke (R-Massachusetts). Ridenhour learned about the events at My Lai secondhand, by talking to members of Charlie Company while he was still enlisted.

Eventually, Calley was charged with several counts of premeditated murder in September 1969, and 25 other officers and enlisted men were later charged with related crimes. It was another two months before the American public learned about the massacre and trials.

Independent investigative journalist Seymour Hersh, after extensive conversations with Calley, broke the My Lai story on November 12, 1969; on November 20, Time, Life and Newsweek magazines all covered the story, and CBS televised an interview with Paul Meadlo. The The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio) published explicit photographs of dead villagers killed at My Lai.

In November 1969, General William R. Peers was appointed to conduct a thorough investigation into the My Lai incident and its subsequent cover-up. Peers' final report, published in March 1970, was highly critical of top officers for participation in a cover-up and the Charlie Company officers for their actions at My Lai.



【維基百科】美萊村屠殺(My Lai massacre,越南文:Thảm sát Mỹ Lai),是越戰期間美軍老虎部隊由於懷疑村民掩護越共逃亡,於1968年3月16日在越南廣南省的美萊村(My Lai)進行屠殺。男女老幼都被槍殺,亦有女性被輪姦和屍體被肢解。隔天美國陸軍部的官方報紙《星條旗報》(Stars and Stripes)頭條新聞登出:「美軍包圍赤色分子,殺死128人」。

即將被屠殺的老幼婦孺有美軍偵察直升機目擊屠殺經過。機師休斯·湯普森 (Hugh Thompson Jr.)發現美萊村血流成河,於是降落查看。直升機於一條壕溝旁降落,湯普森發現整條壕溝都是屍體和傷者。湯普森請一名陸軍中士大衞·米契爾 (David Mitchell)幫忙把傷者從壕溝抬出,米契爾卻表示會幫傷者解脫。

湯普森感到震驚,並向中尉威廉·卡利(William Calley)查詢。卡利表示只是跟從指令。湯普森駕走直升機時,見到有美軍向壕溝開槍。其後,在上空,湯普森見有美軍正向平民靠近。湯普森連忙降落並指示機員,如果美軍向平民開火,他們就要向美軍開火。湯普森則把平民分兩批用直升機載走。

美萊村屠殺的消息被美國陸軍封鎖了一年,後來由美國記者西摩·赫希(Seymont Hersh)所揭發,1969年11月12日《紐約客》(New Yorker)雜誌刊出屠殺新聞,導致美國境內反戰情緒高漲,國際社會譁然,一致以「道德破產」加以責難。赫希於1970年獲得普利茲國際報道獎。

1969年美國國會對事件展開調查。湯普森作證時被國會議員猛烈抨擊。國會主席李華斯 (L. Mendel Rivers)更表示湯普森應是唯一受罰的美軍,因為他下令向美軍瞄準。

1971年3月31日美國軍事法庭因美國陸軍中尉威廉·卡利下令開火而判處終身監禁,然而經上訴後被減刑至四個半月。另有二十五人被起訴,但全部無罪釋放。



伸延閱覽:
美萊村屠殺事件 維基百科
My Lai Massacre 維基百科
紅翼行動 維基百科
US unmanned aerial warfare 維基百科
格殺拉登難言氣壯 雅虎新聞網





8 comments:

新鮮人 said...

為何今天提出這件事呢?
是否有特別原因嗎?

the inner space said...

新鮮兄:記起咪去網上查找順便記低囉!

個 Blog 是:我個人的 “思想﹑思考﹑思念” 和 “所見﹑所聞﹑所做”的紀錄。

冇特別的原因呱!

新鮮人 said...

嗯~
係你的地方,
我明白。

the inner space said...

新鮮兄: 我有時去你個 blog 讀到寫過啲詩,都會返黎記低再登出來!

新鮮人 said...

我都會這樣,
看到不同人不同事,
或者一篇文章都會惹我一些回憶或想法,
從而誘發我想寫些東西,
這是亙維影響和啓發,
很有趣、很有趣!!

the inner space said...

新鮮兄這就是我們常說的:互動 interaction,也就是互聯網的長處吸引之處!

新鮮人 said...

亙動外,
還有亙吋、亙窒...
無論你是覺有這感覺,
我就是這樣覺得。
哈哈哈~~

the inner space said...

哈哈哈哈!我只和兄台互動,絕未曾有過串窒兄台之意圖,若有任何言不及義,得罪了兄台,懇請兄台海量汪涵,多多原諒!至於兄台曾否串窒小弟,恕小弟愚魯不曾察覺,下次要串要窒,懇請多多作題示!