「我離港前到過一間精神科醫院。當時有位病人禮貌地問,一個以作為世上最悠久民主政體而自傲的國家,如何能夠將此地交給一個政治制度非常不同的國家,且既沒諮詢當地公民,又沒給予他們民主的前景,好讓他們捍衞自己的將來。一個隨行同事說,奇怪,香港提出最理智問題的人,竟在精神科醫院。」彭定康 金融時報

“During a visit to a mental hospital before I left Hong Kong, a patient politely asked me how a country that prided itself on being the oldest democracy in the world had come to be handing over his city to another country with a very different system of government, without either consulting the citizens or giving them the prospect of democracy to safeguard their future. Strange, said one of my aides, that the man with the sanest question in Hong Kong is in a mental hospital.”Chris Patten Financial Times

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Thursday, June 12, 2008

種族文化



今早匆匆讀一吓明報新聞,得知加拿大這一段歷史新聞,『哈珀就隔離原住民正式道歉』。


【明報專訊】聲明說,原住民寄宿學校學生的遭遇,是加拿大歷史上悲傷的一頁,當時聯邦政府試圖將原住民兒童與其父母加拿大總理哈珀在國會眾議院,向國家以往強逼隔離原住民兒童,將他們與家人分離一事正式道歉。

哈珀在眾議院發表和文化隔離開來,強制對他們進行同化的政策是錯誤的,這對原住民造成了重大傷害,他代表政府正式錶示真誠道歉。

反對黨自由黨主席迪翁及魁北克集團和新民主黨領袖在隨後的講話中,均表示支持政府這次行動。迪翁還代表自由黨對他們在執政時對寄宿學校一事所負責任表示道歉。

第一民族議會領袖方丹等,10餘名原住民領袖和寄宿學校學生的倖存者代表,在眾議院出席了道歉儀式。眾議院還通過特別動議,首次允許方丹等在議會發表講話。

在1870年到1970年間,大約有15萬5歲至16歲的原住民兒童被迫離開父母,去遠離土著保留地的寄宿學校接受教育。寄宿學校當時由教會開辦,由政府資助。

在寄宿學校,原住民兒童不僅不能講本民族語言,還有很多人身心受虐,甚至遭到性侵害。1998年時任總理克雷蒂安曾就此事發表和解聲明,但沒有得到廣大土著居民的接受,他們一直要求政府進行真誠的正式道歉。



三月時發生的『西藏動亂』,中國被西方人指為,企圖滅絕西藏文化,不竟中共並沒有類似加拿大,持續百年的政策,去企圖同化西藏原住民。

但我不明白為何『眾議院還通過特別動議,首次允許方丹等在議會發表講話。』

我理解這表示,原住民第一民族議會領袖,原本是不能在加拿大議會發表講話,還是加拿大議會內,沒有一個代表原住民的議員?沒有一個第一民族的議員?沒有原住民的聲音?


備注:在無線TVB news 都有類似報導,但TVB新聞網最近改用了, Flash發放新聞片段,我還未找到方法可以做個連結,方便各位閱覽,那就麻煩各位去 TVB 新聞網查閱六月十二日新聞罷。TVB新聞網說:『加拿大政府賠償了巨額金錢,給予幸存的原住民。』


伸延閱覽:
微豆:"殺滅原居印第安孩子的根源"



13 comments:

新鮮人 said...

這段歷史我全不認識,
不便隨便發表意見!

微豆 Haricot said...

In the "bad" old days, there were many society values and perspectives that are, by today's standard, unacceptable and wrong. Canadians witnessed on June 11, 2008 the official apology by the elected leader of the nation. The Apology is similar to the one made by the Australian Govt earlier this year but focuses mostly on the forced assimilation and mistreatment of aboriginal children "enrolled" in the Fed Govt's Indian Residential Schools program.

As I mentioned in my previous comments (see Lotusandcedar "殺滅原居印第安孩子的根源" / "To Kill the Indian in the Child"), there are major differences betwn Canada's Indian Residential Schools program and China's treatment of Tibetans. Here are a few key ones:

1. Scope and Applicability: The Canadian Prime Minister's Apology focuses specifically on the estimated 150,000 aboriginal children and the 87,000 living survivors, their parents, families, and the communities that were adversely affected by the Indian Residential Schools policy and program that started in the 1870's. The Settlement Agreement (including the monetary compensation of approx CAD$2B, and the Indian Residential Schools Truth and Reconciliation Commission) was also negotiated specifically for the Indian Residential Schools case. On the other hand, the issue on China's treatment of Tibetans is much broader and encompasses more than just children. It has a lot to do with how China wants to govern the region in terms of, among other things, social and economic reforms and the distribution of power betwn the Han and Tibetan peoples.

2. Timeline: The Prime Minister's Apology is for the duration of the Indian Residential Schools system. However, based on my somewhat limited knowledge of Chinese history, the Tibet issue began in the 1940's and the 1950's. So we are talking about different events that happened on a different scale over a different timeline.

3. Context and Nature of Issues:
The Apology deals specifically with the Indian Residential Schools case; it does not make references to human rights and other broader issues. There are also differences in the context and nature of issues confronting Canada and China. Here are some thoughts.

3.1 The aboriginals are the first peoples who, according to anthropologists, migrated approx 25,000 years ago from Asia to the Americas through the land connection that is now the Bering Straits. Thousands of years later, the Europeans arrived and took over their lands and resources. To the aboriginals, the context and nature of the issues have to do with the negotiations betwn the First Nations and the peoples who came later (e.g. treaties, land and resource claims, self-governance, etc).
(References: See my blog articles re Chief Seattle's Speech http://lotusandcedar.blogspot.com/2008/02/visiting-moose-cree-first-nation-part-2.html), and the one re the Contacts with Europeans. http://lotusandcedar.blogspot.com/2008/02/visiting-moose-cree-first-nation-part-3.html
)

3.2 The PRC recognizes the Tibetans as an ethnic minority group and has always considered them as part of the Chinese family (56民族). So, the context and nature of the issues have more to do with finding the best way to co-exist, either as one nation (PRC position) or as separate nations (Tibet "separatists" position).

3.3 As to issues related to human rights, obviously Canada is apologizing to the survivors of the Indian Residential Schools and the aboriginal communities for wrongs that had been committed before any modern-day Human Right legislations were in place. To this end, Canada is taking actions and is determined to resolving Human Right issues through multilateral forums such as the United Nations and internal legislative bodies such as the federal and provincial Human Rights Commissions. To the best of my knowledge, China does not have any Human Right Commissions and is taking a very different approach in dealing with cases and issues brought to its attention. The real or perceived lack of transparency in this regard has always been a bone of contention with many western countries.

In summary, I would submit that one should avoid drawing a complete parallel betwn Canada's Indian Residential Schools case and the China-Tibet case. Further, Canada's official apology is a positive step forward in healing the wound that was the Indian Residential Schools. While there are challenges ahead, many see it as a signal that the Federal Government is listening and is taking remedial actions. As they say, it is better late than never. However, I would submit that the Apology does not therefore undermine Canada's position on the promotion of human rights, nor should one call Canada a hypocrite. To err is human. The important thing is what one does after.

梁巔巔 said...

加國有一招好毒!

畀 $ oD印地安原住民, 等佢哋安逸死!

所以, 你都睇到 la, 當地大把白天都拎住枝酒嘅紅種人.

微豆 Haricot said...

"... 加國有一招好毒 ..."

梁公子: There are social-economic problems in Canada, but I would dispel the notion of "加國有一招好毒!" as if there is currently a country-wide, calculated conspiracy against the aboriginal peoples here in Canada. I have known many aboriginal friends and colleagues who are leaders in their own right, who contribute to the good of their communities and Canada as a whole.

Stereotyping First Nation peoples as "drunkard Indians" and laying the "blame" on Canada (presumably non-aboriginals) will lead to further division and not the reconciliation that one wants.

The Inner Space said...

新鮮兄:
加拿大這段歷史只是令我聯想起,
西方傳媒政府對三月的西藏動亂,
對中國作出扭曲不實強加的指責,
其實西方人對南北美洲澳洲土著,
實行切底滅絕土著文化語言傳統。

在加拿大議會連畀土著領袖發言,
都要特別通過特別動議才能進行,
這是否意味沒有一個土著的議員?
還是加拿大是不準土著競選議員?
或是原住民是沒有聲音在議會內?

The Inner Space said...

微豆兄:
南非把政權還予,
以 曼德拉為首的原住民,
但 美國,加拿大,澳洲,
在中美洲,南美洲,很多西班牙語系葡萄牙語系國家,政權還是掌握在歐洲移民後裔手上。

The Inner Space said...

巔巔兄:
我去大峽谷時經過啲
美國『印第安人保留區
Indian Reserves』,
聽到他門和自己人,都是說英語的,想他們的土語已經失傳了。 對我還見到他們的成人老人,都是無所事事,在飲酒閑談。

加拿大的我就不知道了!

梁巔巔 said...

微豆兄 & Space 兄:

呢種係一種統治手段, 此之謂陽予陰奪.

The Inner Space said...

巔巔兄:

『陽予陰躲』知道了!
『明予暗奪』明白了!
加拿大 的 英國裔 定 法國裔 呀?

梁巔巔 said...

話事嗰裔/白人

The Inner Space said...

巔巔兄:


中南美是拉丁語系,講寫都是西班牙或葡萄牙文字和語言。
非洲是法語系和英語系,講寫都是法國 或 英國文字和語言。

唔知澳洲啲土著仲有冇自己語言呢?

梁巔巔 said...

有. 但所剩無幾.

等於滿文一樣.

The Inner Space said...

哦! 澳洲土著啲語言文字
巔巔兄都有研究,佩服!佩服!